Since the addition of the website server for an external corporation, I now have 5 Linux servers to manage on my own. I also have 4 terminal devices that I use to connect to those servers: two of my laptops, my Android phone (using Termux), and one of those servers that I use as a workstation.

Managing SSH keys has always been a headache for this many computers, as all of them on one side have to be updated of the new key whenever one on the other side changes or rotates its key. In case of a client key change, the new key must be uploaded to all servers. And in a worse case where the original key is lost, the uploading needs to be done with the help of another client (computer or phone), which is an additional layer of unnecessary complexity and cumber.

Not until I took over a system of many servers did I learn about SSH CA. It’s for sure to the rescue!

What is an SSH CA?

Long story short, an SSH Certificate Authority is a certificate authority for SSH hosts. A client can trust all server signed by the CA by simply trusting the CA. And more powerfully, a server can also trust all user keys if the user key has a signature from the CA, and the server trusts the CA for signing user keys.

By properly configuring servers and clients, a rotated or otherwise changed key, be it a host key or a user key, will no longer cause chaos of copying public keys from everywhere, to everywhere. The follow-up is as simple as getting another CA signature for the new key, and everything will go smoothly as if nothing has happened.

Creating an SSH CA

Creating a CA is as easy as generating a key pair for it, and publishing its public key.

To generate a key pair for a CA, you’d do it the usual way you generate a regular SSH key pair:

ssh-keygen -f my_ca

Proceed through the prompts, and you’ll find two files my_ca and in your current directory. Contrary to SSH keys that you use for regular purposes, I highly recommend setting a password for this key, since it’s going to be way more powerful than those. Protect the private key carefully, and leave the public part somewhere easily accessible, like mine.

Authenticating hosts with SSH CA

Sign a host key

To sign a host key with your CA, copy its public part (like to a convenient place, and run the following command.

ssh-keygen -s <ca private key> -I <signature name> -h <host key>

You’ll find a file named in your current directory, which you should copy back to the server. Because sshd(8) doesn’t look for host certificates by default, you shold edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config to instruct it to do so. Add this line to the file to let it work:

HostCertificate /etc/ssh/

Then run systemctl reload ssh (or service sshd reload if you’re not running on systemd) to reload the configuration.

Restrict signature validity range

As a security measure, you probably don’t want the signature remain valid even if stolen. The -n option is there for you to specify “valid principals”. For example, you can specify a signature valid for,, and this signature is accepted by clients only if the server is accessed from or If someone steals the private key and the CA signature and installs it on another host, for example or, the SSH client will complain:

Certificate invalid: name is not a listed principal

Unless the attacker can hijack your DNS (for authenticated domain names) or even your routers (for plain IP addresses), this signature is useless when stolen, and you can safely forget about it and sign a new one for the regenerated host key.


You can see the certificate information using ssh-keygen -L command. For example:

ssh-keygen -Lf /etc/ssh/

Configure clients

Now let’s configure clients to trust CA signatures. You’ll need to publish the public key of the CA (as said before) so clients can easily acquire it. Put a line like this in a client’s known_hosts file:

@cert-authority * ssh-rsa <publicKeyGibberish>

You can automate the addition of the above line using shell scripts:

printf "@cert-authority * " | cat - >> ~/.ssh/known_hosts

Now try SSHing into a host with a CA signature. You’ll notice that SSH doesn’t prompt for “unknown host” even if it’s not listed in the known_hosts file, which is because of the magic of the @cert-authority line. Should you be interested in the details, you can use ssh -vvv to let SSH client generate extra information.

Authenticating users with SSH CA

Configure servers

We’ll start this part with server side configuration. We want the server to trust user certificates signed by the CA, so we’ll copy the CA’s public key onto the server, and again edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config and add the following line.

TrustedUserCAKeys /etc/ssh/ssh_user_ca

Make sure you’ve put the CA public key at /etc/ssh/ssh_user_ca, or you should change the path in the above configuration accordingly. Again, run systemctl reload ssh or service sshd reload to reload the SSH server.

Pro Tip

Did you notice that the configuration line is named CAKeys, not just CAKey? Yes, you can add multiple public keys to that file just like you’re already doing with authorized_keys file.

Sign user keys

Now, to grant access to all servers configured this way to a user, ask for their public key and create a signature. The command is similar to that when signing a host certificate, except that there’s no -h switch (it’s for signing hosts), and the -n (named principals) option is mandatory this time.

ssh-keygen -s my_ca -I <user name> -n root,ubuntu

This will create a file under the current directory, which you want to send back to the user so they can use this signature to log in to servers.

Contrary to host signatures, the SSH client doesn’t need extra configuration, because it automatically looks for the certificate file by appending to the name of the private key. Again you can use ssh -vvv to see what’s going on under the hood.

Separating access to different hosts

As you’ve probably noticed, if you sign a user certificate with root being a listed principal, the corresponding private key can be used to log in as root on ALL servers that trust the certificate authority. This is rarely a desired result, and you’re probably looking for a cure for the issue.

Fortunately, SSH supports an “authorized principals” setting, which allows granting access to users with specific “principals”. In general, you want separate authorized principals for different users on hosts. Here’s what you can start with, by enabling this setting in sshd_config:

AuthorizedPrincipalsFile /etc/ssh/authorized_principals/%u

You can then create lists of authorized names for each user under /etc/ssh/authorized_principals. For example, you can have the following lines in /etc/ssh/authorized_principals/root:


After reloading SSH server, users with a certificate containing taokystrong as a listed principal (supplied by the -n option when signing the certificate using ssh-keygen) can log in as root on this host (and taokystrong as well), but not any other user on this host, or the root user on any other server. Note that certificates signed for root can still log in as root on any servers that trust this CA.

Good practices

For personal uses, it’s perfectly fine to use one CA for both hosts and users, but in larger corporations with a complex server layout, it’s a general practice to use separate CAs for host authentication and user authentication.

Other tips

OpenSSH is a complicated and powerful SSH ecosystem. There are far more available options than those described in this article. For example, certificates can have a “validity period”, and the commands can also be limited (instead of granting a full shell).

For more detailed and authoritative information about thses configuration, the man page for sshd_config is always a good point to look at.

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